Fascism and Nazism are two ideologies that emerged in the 20th century, and while Nazism is considered to be a form of fascism, there are many differences between the two. Both reject the ideologies of liberalism, Marxism, and democracy, but their core beliefs diverge on many aspects.
Fascism was originally coined to refer to the fascists of Italy under Mussolini, while Nazism was an ideological concept of the Nazi Party or the National Socialist German Workers’ Party of Adolf Hitler. Fascism was in vogue between 1919 and 1945, while Nazism became popular from 1933 to 1945.
Fascism believes in the “corporatism” of all elements in society to form an “Organic State,” with no strong opinion of any race. For Fascists, the state was the most important element, and The Doctrine of Fascism, the authoritative document of fascism, emphasized nationalism, corporatism, totalitarianism, and militarism. According to this doctrine, the state is all-embracing, and no human or spiritual value exists beyond it.
However, Nazism emphasized racism and considered the Aryan race to be superior. Nazism’s core belief was based on racial hatred, and while fascism was based on certain political ideologies, Nazism was blindly based on racial hatred.
Fascism wanted to preserve the class system and almost accepted the concept of social mobility, while Nazism considered class-based society as an enemy and stood for unifying the racial element. Nazism considered the state as a means for the advancement of the master race, while fascism considered the state to be a form of nationalism. Fascists considered nationalism as something related to national culture as opposed to other cultures.
The etymology of fascist comes from fascio, an Italian word meaning a union or bundle. In contrast, Nazi comes from the first two syllables of Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, which is the German language name of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party.
In conclusion, while Nazism is a form of fascism, there are many differences between the two. Fascism emphasizes corporatism, nationalism, and totalitarianism, while Nazism emphasizes racism and the superiority of the Aryan race. Fascism aims to preserve the class system, while Nazism aims to unify the racial element. The state is the most important element for fascism, while for Nazism, the advancement of the master race is the primary goal.